Effect of carbon dioxide on antioxidant enzymes and ginsenoside production in root suspension cultures panax ginseng


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CO2 at various concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5%) on antioxidant enzymes and ginsenoside accumulation in Panax ginseng roots in 5 l airlift bioreactors (working volume 4 l). One and 2.5%CO2 was beneficial for root biomass accumulation,but 5% CO2 decreased the biomass. Ginsenoside concentration decreased with increasing concentration of CO2. No significant difference was observed in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity between respective controls and CO2 treated roots. Antioxidantenzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD) including reduced ascorbate and total glutathione were induced in CO2 exposed roots which emphasized the protective role of antioxidants against CO2 induced stress. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) which was induced after 15 days was significantly inhibited after 45 days. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities also increased when the roots were subjected to 1 and 2.5%CO2 compared to the respective controls but not at 5%. A higher reduced ascorbate to oxidized (ASC/DHA) ratio in CO2 treated root indicatesthe plant’s ability to tolerate CO2 stress. These observations suggest that an increase in antioxidant enzymes may affect a defense response to the cellular damage induced by CO2. Probably, this increase could not stop the deleterious effects of CO2 concentration on ginsenoside concentration, but reduced stress severity and thereby allowing root growth to occur.